There are lot of reasons for unemployment but one of the major reason is overpopulation. The population is increasing day by day but job opportunity cant be created same proportion so a huge percentage of people remain unemployed. An unemployment always hits individual to hardest. Self respect, sense as well as income always decreases for this reason. An unployed person isnot only suffer from this problems but their family members also suffer with them. According to unemployement can cause countless problems at same time and it is such kind of poison which pollutes society and country. Justice, sinecerity, honesty, nobility, truth can not be expected from a person who Is unable to manage his living. According to economy watch(2011) Egypt had an average unemployement rate of 8.3 % in 2007. According to Egypt independent (2012) Egypt unemployment rate rises to 12.4 %in 2011(Egypt indepent wesite 18 feb 2012) which can compared to 8.9 % in 2010 said by central agency for public mobilization and statistics (capmas). Egypt is over populated

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Only 10% of area is used for living, agriculture and other 90% are unused. There are some cities and areas in Egypt which has higher density population pressure. Some areas contain a lot of people so it is very difficult to maintain good hygiene and optimum living space. According to lodinews website there are some districts which has more than 41,000 people per square km(lodinews website , 2011) . according to bbc Egypt has high birth rate equal to 2 %. (bbcweb, 2099) Overpopulation and unemployment is a part of everyday for many Egyptian . so its easily recognized that overpopulation increase rate of unemployment.

Education system is also plays vital role in unemployment problems. The present bookish education responsible for it. Subjects which are taught at school, college or university not compatible or not related or not at the level of present job requirement. There is mismatch between skills needed in job market and skills provided by Egyptian education system. There is huge gap between what students study and what requirement for getting job. Students are studying some superficial subjects and they only sunning back to get high marks sometimes without understanding the subject itself. A lot of highly educated persons fail to manage job and a lot of graduates are unable to find job which relates with their study. The rate of unemployment problems among literates people is much higher than illeterates and situation get much more worser as 25 % of youth are unemployed which leads to frustration, crimes in society so as result it increases rate of unemployment disperately. Any country progression mainly depends on education and scientific research. Education system in Egypt at critical juncture there are a lot of reasons for this such as cost saving policy which affects quality of education, lack of proper training of teaching stuffs, low salary given to teachers which leads to encourage them to give private lesssons to students. Such educational system encourage them in memorizing instead of thinking creatively, this education system doesnot help students to build their personalities, doesnot teach them how to be independent learner, how to become creative and think more effectively and developing. According to professor Mohamed aboulghar states that Egyptian university graduates cant think, cant ask question, cant argue even don’t know how to dialogue , they are only capable of waiting for order and execute them ()which means this education system make a personality that cant create or think.

There are a lot of other reasons for unemployment. It can be put in following lists:

One of major cause of unemployment is a falling economy, Government unable to fix up realistic fiscal policy, recession all over the world.

Political unrest, Governmental instability, social security, investment insecurity that’s why some sectors are facing tremendous problem like, tourists visits, foreign investment etc

Government policy, the government has not a comprehensive strategy for job creation policy, poor governance, mismanagement of resources etc. Effect of Economic policies, the country weak and unrealistic economic policy is a direct cause of high unemployment in Egypt, Lack of open market economic policy, lack of competitive investment policies, and high tax rates policy are the main factors of unemployment.

Lack of proper world standard education and training, there is a mismatch of the skills provided by the Egyptian educational system and the skills needed in the job market. Egyptian Government allocates the lowest budget for Research and development in the world.

Imbalance between workers qualifications and the demands of the labor market. Egyptian workers are facing lack of skills and competent for a competitor jobs.

Still technical education does not get priority in the country, so workers usually fail to get good jobs. There are also some other reasons like social prejudices which pull them to join in some particular jobs.

According to El-Megharbel ( 2007) The private sector does not provide enough job opportunities, which contributes to the continual increase of the informal sector, as individuals resort it to provide a source of income.

Corruption has been a big disaster for a long time in Egypt which destroys the economical strength and one of the main reason for unemployment.


The unemployment has very effects on society, economy, health etc. an unemplolyed person who doesnot have any job so it financial losses for the unemployed workers and individual losses his or her productivities and a bad effect of national gross domestic productivity. National economy suffers because of lower input. Due to unemployment problems an unemployed person’s overall tention increase which may affect his/her physical such as blood pressure, depression, diabetes and mental health like grief, anxiety, loss interest in life and those physical and mental problems may affect or spread negative attitude his or her other’s family members and when this problems spread to other family members it may lead turmoil, quarrels, argument, develop negative attitude towards common things in life. Mental tention always exist which creates and leads to fear and unsecure.

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Another bad effect of unemployment is crime and violence. Different studies had shown that crimes and violence are inversely proportional to unemployement because as an upemployed person fails to find his daily living and expenses he desperately and unintentionally does unethical things. It also may lead decrease social interaction with other people which include family members also not only this it may brings the disgrace to that person which unfortunately increase suicide and divorce rate in Egypt.


Solution of unemployment is an urgent need for Egypt. The number of unemployed person increase day by day. It is not possible to find only one perfect solution for such huge problem. There are a lot of possible solution provided in order to reduce the rate of unemployment. One of the solution is constructing and reform textile sector. Its known that Egypt is famous for cotton from ancient time and clothes are made from cotton. So it’s great chance for Egypt to construct and reform textile sector in order to reduce the rate of unemployement. According to hashbd website repair, reconstruct, reform the textiles sector could be benifical for Egypt. Another solution according to tarek2011.blogspot to stop selling companies and to postpone privatization program, to encourage people to migration to other country for work and send back remittance to Egypt. So by stop selling companies and postpone privatization a lot of Egyptian can get job at same time under government direction and supervision. Another solution is desert reclamation. By desert reclamation there will be enough land for farming, industries etc which may decrease unemployment rate in Egypt. According to ahram weakly improving labour market function by reducing segmentation and by dersert reclamiation is the most perfect solution for unemployment in Egypt.

There are a lot of solutions in order to decrease rate of unemployement but the best solution would be:

Establish large number of mills, factories, industries which creates a large number of job opportunities

Only 10 % area is used for living, agriculture and other 90 % is useless so it should be well- distributed all over Egypt

A great change needed in education system. More importance should be given on technical, vocational and professional education.

The educated youth should motivate attitude to life. They must know how to think not what to think and they should choose independent career. Self employment is best and also jobperfect solution to this great problem.

If rich people in Egypt used to invest half of their wealth in development of Egypt the unemployement rate would decrease half so government must set up new rules and policy in order to rich people and investor get attract and feel comfortable to invest in Egypt.


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