“Comparing Factors that lead to Underdevelopment”

Factors that Lead to Underdevelopment

To begin with, the term under development in most of the developing nations is used in reference to the poor economic and technology state in developing countries. Commonly, most of the undeveloped countries are located in Africa, Asia, and Latin America.  Various sectors of the economy in these countries remain mostly undeveloped due to multiple issues. Furthermore, underdevelopment has led to the continued suffering of the people as they receive poor services. The subsequent governments in the areas have brought various policies to help in alleviating poverty in the regions. However, very little success has been achieved due to the high rates of corruption among people working for government urgencies in the developing countries. The problem is huge in countries such as Egypt and Eritrea, whereby there are increased issues in health care and education.

Healthcare Issues Specific to Men and Women

Health care is viewed as critical towards ensuring that the countries achieve their targeted objectives. However, there remain various issues within and outside the two governments that affect the improvement of the health care system. For instance, the two countries face a problem for not having good health care policies. Here, there are no better policies to cater for the rising number of people in need of the services. To illustrate, in Egypt both the private and public sectors have low interest in the formulation of the health policies. On the other hand, in Eritrea the governments do not have a working health care insurance system that can facilitate individuals in paying for their health care cost.

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Moreover, there are high levels of corruption in both countries. Corruption is a significant impediment of having substantial development in the two countries. For instance, most of the money allocated for the health department ends up benefiting very few people. Most of the people in charge of the healthcare department usually end up using the money for their personal use rather than the intended purposes (Ajulor, 2017). Therefore, the people end up suffering due to lack of proper services due to unmeet cost. For instance, in Egypt, most hospitals do not have enough resources to pay their health workers, and this leads to stalling of service delivery. It is estimated that over 72% of the population pay for their health cost which is difficult to maintain. On the other hand, in Eritrea, the level of corruption is quite low due to the strict observance of the law. However, social classes have influenced how the health care services are offered in the country.

The two countries also have underdeveloped health care system due to lack of proper research. The health care departments in the states do not take measures to conduct extensive research on the factors that may contribute to specific health issues. This is due to the lack of enough resources to undertake the study (Araya et al. 2016). Therefore, there are no measures recommended for undertaking in reducing the spread of diseases among the general population. Conducting research would help the health care department in deciding on the nature of services to provide to some people affected by certain conditions. For instance, Egypt does not sponsor benchmarking events of the leaders in the health care department so that they can learn from countries with well-developed research facilities. This has served to hinder any development within the health care system. Similarly, Eritrea does not have a working research institute to help in conducting further studies in the field of medicine.

Furthermore, the two countries do not have a proper education system. Having a better education system helps in raising a high number of people to pursue careers in medicine and nursing. However, most of the students in the two countries are not interested in pursuing such careers since they do not consider them as lucrative. For example, in Egypt, the education system has been tailored towards ensuring that people only undertake courses that have high financial rewards and not for catering for societal needs. On the contrary, the levels of literacy are very low in Eritrea as many people consider doing other things that are regarded as important as education. The country also experiences poor teaching practices, thus propelling the idea that education has little value to offer to the people.

Current Educational Issues

Education helps in the establishment of an empowered society. The education system of a country should assist in ensuring that it raises personalities with the right quality to steer development. However, there have been several challenges facing the education system in both Egypt and Eritrea. For instance, the two countries have high poverty indexes which have hampered education. For example, in the two countries, students rarely have enough resources to cater for the school fees (Popkova, et al. 2018). Moreover, the governments are fighting to cater for priority needs such as the provision of food, which affects the two countries due to the arid climate. For instance, in Eritrea over 70% of the children do not get the opportunity of attending secondary school. In Egypt, the government has not invested heavily in the provision of sustainable education.

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Moreover, the two countries face leadership problems, thus affecting policy formulation. For instance, Egypt had experienced political turmoil over the years due to poor leadership policies. The crisis has led to reduced services since the concerned authorities do not adequately supervise the school heads. The situation is similar in Eretria, whereby the leadership has not implemented good policies within the education sector (Tordoff, 2016). Egypt, for instance has been experiencing political turmoil, thus hinders the development of educational policies. Most of the administration are rather unstable and do not get the time to implement their policies fully due to the aggressive opposition. Similarly, Eritrea has been rooted in deep disregard of human rights due to poor leadership. Therefore, the citizens are less concerned in matters regarding education.

The two countries have also experienced high dependency. For instance, the governments are waiting for donor funding to facilitate specific development projects in the schools. Some of the donor funding never come and at times, have harsh requirements, thus making it challenging to carry meaningful development in the areas (Rodney, 2018). For example, Eritrea depends heavily on the help offered by the World Bank. Most of the students and school projects have been funded through the World Bank. Similarly, Egypt depends on the Arabian and Islamic states to implement some of the education projects in the country. Therefore, there is need for the governments need to ensure that they plan correctly and put all the needs in the budget.


  • Ajulor, O. V. (2017). The challenges of policy implementation in Africa and Sustainable Development Goals. PEOPLE: International Journal of Social Sciences3(3).
  • Araya, A., Scholar, M., BeLue, R., & Francis, L. A. (2016). Eritrean and Eritrean American Health Assessment. The Penn State McNair Journal, 20.
  • Popkova, E. G., Bogoviz, A. V., Lobova, S. V., & Romanova, T. F. (2018). The essence of the processes of economic growth of socio-economic systems. In Management of Changes in Socio-Economic Systems (pp. 123-130). Springer, Cham.
  • Rodney, W. (2018). How europe underdeveloped africa. Verso Trade.
  • Tordoff, W. (2016). Government and politics in Africa. Macmillan International Higher Education.


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