1.Sri Lanka’s geographical location has, traditionally, represented a significant point in the Indian Ocean region. Since the ancient history, maintaining of a maritime domain became an important factor to Sri Lanka as it is an island nation and lies near to a regional super power and also lies near the main sea route connecting West to East of world. Further it is observed that two regional powers – China and India has made their presence in Sri Lanka in various methods such as ports, aviation and power plants constructions therefore it is paramount important to be aware on maritime domain. It has enabled Sri Lanka to serve as a hub port to most of the countries around.
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4. The powerful phenomenon of globalization has highlighted the criticality Same time Sri Lanka has launched an ambitious five hub growth strategy that aim to position the country as navel, aviation, commercial, energy and knowledge hub in this region. The maritime hub concept seeks to maximize the potential of Sri Lanka’s strategic position at the intersection of major international sea trading routes in the Indian ocean. With the guidance of Sri Lanka government Sri Lanka ports authority is in the right action to make its dedicated excellent performance towards making Sri Lanka the regional maritime hub in south Asia.
2.presently Sri Lanka is maintaining more than seven present of development rate after humanitarian war . when it consider as development maritime activities that can archive potential in this country that is only now being realized. Sri Lanka emerging as the Indian ocean’s new maritime hub. As with the recently concluded commonwealth head of government meeting, this is a very positive indication of Sri Lanka’s increasing stature in international affairs since the dawn of peace four years ago. This is something about that all Sri Lankans are just proud. Emerging maritime trends in the Indian ocean. Through the history the Indian ocean has been a major conduit of international exploration, migration and commerce . many of the country of the world first civilizations evolved around or in proximity to its shores. Trade along or through the Indian ocean was an important feature from early in human history.
3. To examine development of Sri Lanka as maritime hub and further discuss challengers facing to achieve development and opportunities to achieve success.
WHAT IS MARITIME HUB
4.The meaning of maritime, hubs are the properly linked nodes in a maritime network. Throughout history, maritime hubs have been the main factor of economic growth and development. Today world’s economy dominated by the hubs which are main points of opportunity, growth and revolution.
CHARACTERISTICS OF A HUB
5. The characteristics of a hub includes finances, capability to raise funds, social mobilization capability, capacitating access points and a proper relationship with the local and national administration and government. And basic logistical infrastructure, private enterprises and development-oriented approach are some of the other basics for a hub. Furthermore, reasonably advanced IT infrastructure, literacy, multi language capabilities, professionals with communication skills and creativity, credibility and link with the user community and series of ports are important components of a hub. Also air transport and dynamic port facilities plays a significant role in establishing hubs.
6.We can find several kinds of hubs in the world like aviation, energy, knowledge, maritime and commercial. There are around 40 mega hubs around the world; among them 10 to 1 are in Asian region, namely Singapore, Shanghai, Hongkong, Malaysia and Yoko.
WHY SRI LANKA SUITABLE FOR MARITIME DEVOLOPMENT
7.Presently Sri Lanka is in stage of developing country it is very much essential to have means and ways to develop country in effective way. Maritime hub manly based on harbor in an around the country. There are more than 5 harbor in Sri Lanka out of those two harbor can utilize in effectively.
8.Those are Colombo and Hambanthota. Colombo harbor is one of the best harbor in the world. Its ranked as 32 nd place in the world order. And Sri Lanka positioning in strategic place in the world. When it come to the maritime activities it 10 km away from the main see route which connect west and south. Situation in Sri Lanka is very much peaceful to develop any kind of activity.
SRI LANKA’S OCEN WEALTH
9.Indian Ocean makes a remarkable contribution to Sri Lanka’s economy. The coastal zone of Sri Lanka consists of around 25% of total land area, hosts around one third of the country’s population, accommodates over two thirds of all industrial facilities, and over 80% of tourism infrastructure.
10. Marine fisheries play a pivotal role in Sri Lanka’s fish supply. According to the
National Aquaculture Development Authority (NARA), in 2011, around 86% of total fish supply has come from marine fisheries. The marine fish catch comprises of 58%from coastal area and 42% from off shore.
11.Additionally, Sri Lanka has been blessed to discover oil reserves in the Indian Ocean, which could open a host of new economic opportunities for the country. As of now, there have been no focused investigations of gas hydrate potential in the Sri Lankan off-shores. However, existing data shows that oil and/or gas potential exists in the Mannar Basin to the west, Cauvery Basin to the north, Bengal fan deposits to the east, and newly identified sedimentary basins to the south of the island.
12.In the case of Sri Lanka, the prevailing peaceful environment has opened new avenues for a number of economic activities – for instance in tourism products like whale and dolphin watching. According to experts, Sri Lanka is one of the easiest places to see blue whales, and the warm continental shelf around the country makes
it attractive for feeding for these
PERSENT STATUS AND REASON ACHIVEMENT ON MARITIME HUB
9.The government of Sri Lanka has taken many action to develop maritime hub in sri Lanka. main focuses is improvement of harbor in Sri Lanka presently it has taken many project to enhance the capability of harbor as well as development of new harbor in Sri Lanka.
10.Government has planned to construct a Colombo Port City Development Project filling a land area of 233 hectares in the ocean area in close proximity to the port premises. With the facilities of international level mega shopping malls, hotels and housing facilities to be leased out on this new project Sri Lanka port authority , expects to collect huge revenues to the national development.
11.The construction of the Magam Ruhunupura Mahinda Rajapaksa Port at Hambantota produce a facility that can provide services to ships traversing this sea line of communication with minimum delay. The port is being developed in three phases as a state of the art port, and once completed it will provide bunkering services, container handling and ship repair facilities, as well as industrial operations in a large free trade zone. With sophisticated equipment it may be done in very effectively.
12.The Colombo Port, which is the country’s principal and main commercial port, is being expanded. The South Harbor Development has created new container terminals and has enhanced the Colombo Port’s capability to cater to projected growth in volumes and handle the largest ships in the world.
13.Smaller ports around the country are also being developed. The Oluvil Harbour in the South East is being developed as a hub for fisheries and related industries. The Kankasanthurai Port is being rehabilitated to cater to shipping requirements in the North, including facilitating faster trade with neighboring countries like India, Myanmar and Bangladesh.
14.The Galle Port is being developed with new sophisticated facilities including a yacht marina fully equipped with modern amenities, yacht repair and maintenance facilities, tourist information Centre, hotels, floating restaurants, and duty free shops. This will cater to the growing interest of tourists arriving aboard cruise ships and private yachts to this historic and compact coastal city.
15.The Trincomalee Port, which is the largest natural harbour in South Asia and fifth largest in the world, was critical to the operations of the Royal Navy of Britain and the Dutch Navy after the fall of Singapore during the Second World War. The development of Trincomalee was greatly hindered for three decades during the terrorist war in Sri Lanka, but the Government is now transforming it into a metropolitan growth centre for North Eastern Sri Lanka. New port infrastructure will be established, including shipbuilding & repair facilities and bunkering & ship services. As with Galle, more tourist facilities are also being developed in Trincomalee.
16.The new terminal will be equipped with facilities to cater the largest and mega container vessels that would join the international maritime fleet during the coming years. With those achievements fully development of the maritime hub not far way.
PRESENT SITUATION IN SRI LANAKA RELETETE TO MARITIME HUB
17.The world’s busiest East-West shipping lane lies 10 kilometres to the south of the island. This port is one of the port in china concept of string of purl.
18.Sri Lanka emerging as the Indian Ocean’s new maritime hub Hence, the Port of Colombo has handled a total container throughput in transshipment operations figures to 3, 208, 117 in 2013 against a total of 3,064,767 in 2012 showing a growth of 4.7%. The domestic operations at the Port of Colombo also shows a growth of 1.1% in 2013 compared to the same in 2012. The total container throughput of the Port of Colombo in 2013 is 4,306,206 TEUs against 4,187,120 TEUs in 2012 that depicts a growth of 2.8%.
19.Accordingly, a 400m terminal and a container yard facility will be constructed under phase I with a project cost of US $ 80 million. The new terminal will be equipped with facilities to cater the largest and mega container vessels that would join the international maritime fleet during the coming years.
20.Government has planned to construct a Colombo Port City Development Project filling a land area of 233 hectares in the ocean area in close proximity to the port premises. With the facilities of international level mega shopping malls, hotels and housing facilities to be leased out on this new project SLPA, expects to collect huge revenues to the national development..
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21.Sri Lanka emerging as the Indian Ocean’s new maritime hub Hence, the Port of Colombo has handled a total container throughput in transshipment operations figures to 3, 208, 117 in 2013 against a total of 3,064,767 in 2012 showing a growth of 4.7%. The domestic operations at the Port of Colombo also shows a growth of 1.1% in 2013 compared to the same in 2012. The total container throughput of the Port of Colombo in 2013 is 4,306,206 TEUs against 4,187,120TEUs in 2012 that depicts a growth of 2.8%.
22.Earlier, Indians along the east coast had to send their cargo to Singapore if they wanted to catch a mega ship going west. Now these mega ships will be going through Colombo and picking up Indian cargo That saves time and a lot of money.” The two major ports of south India, the Port of Cochin and the Port of Tuticorin, are too shallow for mega vessels such as the world’s largest container ship, the MV. Maersk Mc-Kinney Moller.
CHALENGERS FOR MARITIMEHUB
23.Sri Lanka emerging as the Indian Ocean’s new maritime As a result of these all factors, and in order to contain the piracy that affects the Indian Ocean’s shipping lanes, many world powers have had a significant naval presence in the Indian Ocean.
24.In addition to its biological resources, the Indian Ocean region has a considerable wealth of energy and non-renewable resources. Much attention has been paid in recent years to the exploration of offshore oil and gas reserves in the Indian Ocean region. As the price of oil rises, the extraction of these hydrocarbon reserves becomes commercially viable and it is likely that the Indian Ocean will feature as a significant source of oil in future.
25.The most high profile of these is the piracy and armed robbery by Somali pirates in a region that includes the Arabian Sea, the Gulfs of Aden and Oman, and the southern Red Sea. This piracy has effectively taken the entire shipping community in the Indian Ocean Region under siege.
26.Incidence of Somali based pirates attacking passing ships and taking crews hostage became more and more common near the end of the last decade, seriously threatening one of the world’s busiest trade routes
27.The illicit trafficking of narcotics, weapons and people is another serious issue in the Indian Ocean region. Although narcotics smuggling through land routes is at a higher scale than it is on sea, the volume of drugs that is trafficked through these seas is nevertheless considerable. Opiates from the Golden Crescent and the Golden Triangle are smuggled through the Indian Ocean, along with amphetamine-type substances and cannabis from these areas and other regional countries.
28.Human smuggling in the Indian Ocean is another major illicit activity that warrants increased international attention. Primarily due to economic reasons but sometimes also due to conflict, large numbers of people from developing countries seek to migrate illegally into wealthier countries such as.
29.Earlier, Indians along the east coast had to send their cargo to Singapore if they wanted to catch a mega ship going west. Now these mega ships will be going through Colombo and picking up Indian cargo. That saves time and a lot of money.” The two major ports of south India, the Port of Cochin and the Port of Tuticorin, are too shallow for mega vessels such as the world’s largest container ship, the MV. Maersk Mc-Kinney Moller.
43.Activities of maritime hub in Sri Lanka goes back to ancient history it was era that waskodagama discover the island. The relationship is old as that much of time. when it come to development of maritime activities can contribute to GDP in effectively. Sri Lanka is locating very important strategically important place. It also one of major advantage that we have to archive our development. of maritime hub manly based on sea relative activities. When it come to Sri Lanka it has many facilities with related to maritime activities . transshipment operations figures to 3, 208, 117 in 2013 against a total of 3,064,767 in 2012 showing a growth of 4.7%. The total container throughput of the Port of Colombo in 2013 is 4,306,206 TEUs against 4,187,120 TEUs in 2012 that depicts a growth of 2.8%. presently decision has made to expand of Colombo port by 233 hector to enhance the capabilities.
44.It has not focus only main harbor for development there are many harbor has taken in to action for development of country as economic hub and some other ports has developed focusing on tourism industry also.
45.The Indian Ocean covers more than 73.5 million square kilometres, occupying approximately 20% of the Earth’s sea surface. Bounded by 36 nations and 2 island territories, the Indian Ocean region is populated by nearly 2.5 billion people, or just over 35% of the global population
30. Sri Lanka is presently engaging in enhancing its naval and coast guard capabilities in the Indian Ocean, and plays its part in improving the safety of the region through other means as well. And it should be conduct in effective manner.
31.Significant investment must be made by the grand port maritime to make land available and suitable for industry facilities.
32.Sri Lanka is one of the countries that have taken the lead in providing such security services. The Government created a Maritime Division in a fully state owned security company to provide weapons and ammunition to private maritime security companies engaged in on board security duties. Later, through a Public Private Partnership with a local private security company, Sri Lanka started to provide vessels with on board teams. These teams include former Navy personnel with considerable experience in combating attacks on sea and by conducting in perfectly it can active more success.
33.More recently, Sri Lanka has begun operating stringently regulated and secure floating armories to fulfill this requirement
34.The provision of training facilities for Sea Marshals has begun in the very recent past. This is especially important because the International Maritime Organisation requires all Sea Marshals to be properly trained and certified. With the provision of all of these services, Sri Lanka is increasingly gaining recognition as an important contributor to the security of the Sea Lanes of Communication in the Indian Ocean
35.Problem of piracy has become serious problem to all country in the world several resolutions in the United Nations Security Council after 2008 enabled international action against this threat. Counter piracy coalition forces including the EU Naval Force, NATO’s Standing Naval Maritime Groups, and the Combined Task Force were set up.
36.Sri Lanka needs the support of its friends instead of the criticism and admonishment that seems to feature large on the agenda of certain nations that seek to dwell continually on the past. Effective sharing of intelligence between countries, increased coordination between law enforcement agencies and Government departments, and establishing bilateral and multilateral mechanisms to combat these issues cooperatively is critical if trafficking is to be prevented. Countries cannot effectively address these issues on their own accord
37.maritime security is very much important when consider the maritime hub. Sri lanka is presently engaging in enhance its naval and coast guard capabilities in the indian ocean , and plays its part in improving the safety of the region through other means as well. And it should be conduct in effective manner.
38.Presently Sri Lanka is one of peaceful country in world. there for Sri Lanka have many opportunity to get foreign investment with related to maritime industry.
39.Though Sri Lanka have many natural harbors capacity of those harbors not sufficient to fulfill the future reqeipment. rather than having a new harbors it is recommend to enhance the capacity and capabilities of those harbor.
40.Propaganda with relate to maritime activity in Sri Lanka not sound enough to get attraction to the country. Country should have to spared out the propaganda on Sri Lankan maritime industry.
41.Lack of sophisticated equipment in harbor it should have sophisticated equipment to eays function of every harbor.
42.It is not enough to enhancement of harbor there should be development of other infrastructure facility in country. In land transport should be in perfect manner.
BDJ RANGAJEEWA SLE